Volume 30

Volume 30 – Hybrid Warfare: Fighting Back with Whole-of-Society Tactics


Hybrid Warfare is also known as grey zone conflict or unrestricted warfare. And these are just three of various terms now in circulation to describe the same phenomenon — multi-faceted attacks against a country that have serious implications for its national security and defence institutions. They may include military elements, but may also be mounted using cyber tools, public and commercial corruption, weaponization of legal systems, transnational organized crime, and disinformation campaigns, along with a host of other methods. Effective responses will demand an unprecedented level of cooperation between military, intelligence, cyber and other security experts in partnership with experts in the management of conflict in business, legal and public settings.


This issue of On Track examines the implications of the rise of hybrid warfare for Canada and other liberal democracies. It highlights the need to build resilience and to increase collaboration between the private sector, the public sphere, and other relevant entities (NGOs, universities, hospitals, municipalities and more). It assesses whether modern societies are adequately equipped to face these emerging threats, and stresses the need for enhanced cooperation and knowledge distribution. 


This issue of On Track has been developed in collaboration with Project Seshat, a multinational group of experts organized to study and address the emerging threat of hybrid warfare. Find out more at https://www.project-seshat.org/.




All contributors to this issue are members of Project Seshat:


Chris Honeyman is managing partner of Convenor Conflict Management, a consulting firm based in Washington, DC. He has led or co-directed a 30-year series of R&D programs, advised many academic and practice organizations, and served as a professional neutral in more than 2,000 disputes. He is co-editor of seven books and author of over 100 published articles, book chapters and monographs.


Andrea Kupfer Schneider is Professor of Law and director of the Kukin Program for Conflict Resolution at Cardozo Law School in New York City. She has written numerous books, book chapters and articles on negotiation skills and styles, dispute system design, international conflict, and gender and negotiation. Her A.B. is from Princeton University and her J.D. is from Harvard Law School, and she was named the Outstanding Scholar by the American Bar Association Section of Dispute Resolution for 2017.


Calvin Chrustie, BA, BA (Honours), LLM is a senior security and critical risk consultant, specializing in the human element, negotiations (ransom), intelligence, investigations, national security and crisis response. Previously he served 33 years with the RCMP, specializing in transnational organized crime investigations, kidnap/extortion negotiations, crisis and conflict management. Calvin was also the Team Leader of Canada’s International Negotiation Group, a group of specialized negotiators tasked with terrorist and hostage situations. He is now with the boutique advisory group, the Critical Risk Team. 


Anne Leslie is Cloud Risk and Controls Leader—EMEA at IBM Cloud. She has spent much of her career at the intersection between financial services, regulatory policy and technology. At IBM her focus is on accompanying banks and financial institutions in securing their journey to public Cloud and adapting their cybersecurity operations to keep pace with a fast-changing threat landscape. She holds an Executive MBA from HEC Business School in Paris and the CCSP in Cloud Security from (ISC)².


Steven Desjardins retired as a Canadian Armed Forces Colonel and has since completed three years as a consultant to redesign Canada’s Defence Intelligence enterprise. Previously, he served as the senior Intelligence officer in the Canadian Army and in the Canadian Joint Operations Command, and served a tour as senior Intelligence officer for human intelligence, counter intelligence and information security at SHAPE in NATO.


Sanda Kaufman is Professor Emeritus of Planning, Public Policy and Administration at Cleveland State University’s Levin College of Urban Affairs. Her research spans negotiations and intervention in environmental and other public conflicts; social-environmental systems resilience; decision analysis; program evaluation; and negotiation pedagogy. She holds a B. Arch. and M.S. in Planning from Technion, and a Ph.D. in Public Policy Analysis from Carnegie Mellon University.



Table of Contents


1. Hybrid Warfare: Fighting Back with Whole-of-Society Tactics                                    6

            Chris Honeyman & Andrea Kupfer Schneider



2. Mind the Hybrid Warfare Gap                                                                                         15       

            Calvin Chrustie



3. How Hybrid Warfare is Redefining Contours of Business as Usualand                 28

    the Potential Role of the Military

            Anne Leslie



4. Hybrid Warfare – Is it New, is it Real, and What are the Threats,                              37

    Vulnerabilities, and Implications for Defence and the Military?

            Steven Desjardins



5.  How Should the Whole-of-Society Respond to Hybrid Warfare?                             46

            Sanda Kaufman


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